The main cause of the development of the inflammatory process in the duodenum is the bacterium Helicobacter. In healthy people, there is a balance in the stomach between protective and aggressive microflora. With an increase in the acidity of the gastric contents, the pH value in the duodenum also decreases. This moment becomes favorable for the start of active reproduction of Helicobacter bacteria. In this process, the microorganism favors the production of special substances that provoke damage to the cells of the gastric mucosa.
In some cases, bulbitis can be the result of anatomical factors in the form of the absence of the mesentery of the duodenum. With other anomalies of embryonic development, the mesentery is still preserved, but loops are formed from the intestine, in which stagnation of highly acidic contents from the stomach cavity occurs. These conditions become extremely favorable for microorganisms and cause erosion of the mucous membrane under aggressive action. In some cases, the development of bulbitis is caused by factors such as impaired immunity, psycho-emotional breakdowns, genetic abnormalities, and some severe concomitant diseases.